The rejection of blood transfusion is represented worldwide by the “Jehovah’s Witnesses” religious congregation for seven decades is promoting their opposition on this medical procedure, developed aggressive marketing campaigns through their advertising magazines “Watchtower “and” Awake “. These publications address the issue with religious fundamentalism supported by “scientific references” to talk about “quality settings” to treatment with blood. If you approach these readings slightly, can be persuaded to why their dogmatic positions, especially if we lack consistent physiological and pathophysiological knowledge.

Jehovah’s Witnesses are well aware that the vast majority of the population lacks a culture of information and research, that citizens are reluctant to take time in-depth study of a particular subject and form an opinion reasoned and independent, and I must admit bitterness, that health professionals are being convinced by arguments that lack scientific rigor with which they were formed. Please do not leave me to cross off atheist or agnostic for demanding scientific method, as I am fully convinced that medical knowledge is a divine manifestation, inspiration given by a superior to what we know of God, under any name you want assign everyone who professes the religion as. I call upon that knowledge to unmask those who rationally biased so try to instill in people a fear that has no basis, using biblical passages or scientific papers that have been taken partially and tendentious. Remember, even the Devil quoted verses when I wanted to break the will of Jesus in the desert.
When originated the rejection of blood transfusions by Jehovah’s Witnesses?

The origins of this opposition are late, dating from 1945, when Nathan Homer Knorr presided over attempt was transfusion XXVII century, conducted by Jean Baptiste Denys, this procedure is even mentioned in a famous novel, “Frankenstein”, the nineteenth century, the use of stored blood was started in World War I (1914-1918) and the first blood bank was founded in London in 1921, therefore, the transfusion was not ” Bible Study Group “would favor prohibiting blood transfusion.

I recall that blood transfusion is not the only method by which doctor have opposed the Jehovah’s Witnesses at the appropriate vaccines were described as “crime and fraud” between the years 1931-1952, and Organ Transplantation “Cannibalism”, being proscribed for members of the congregation in 1967 to 1980.

Here is a review of the Jehovah’s Witnesses regarding vaccinations:

“Vaccination never prevented anything and never will, and the devil loses his grip slowly, struggling hard to do as much damage as he can, and put on your credit such evils can do … Use your rights as citizens Americans to abolish forever the evil practice of vaccination. “[Golden Age (converted later in Awake!); October 12.1921, p.17].

With the passage of time – and the conviction of the utility of these methods doctors to save lives – the position on vaccination and transplantation were flexibilizándose and becoming a mere act of personal conscience, not being misdemeanor punishable with expulsion of that religious group.
Support? Bible?

Jehovah’s Witnesses justify their opposition to blood transfusion by the arbitrary interpretation of passages of Genesis, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Acts:

“Just abstendréis from meat that has even in his life, that is, its blood” (Genesis 9:4).

“Where your dwellings you shall not eat any blood or bird or beast. Whoever comes to eating blood, whatever, will be removed from your people.” (Leviticus 7.26 to 28).

“You however, whenever you want, kill animals and eat their flesh, as the LORD your God has blessed you in all your towns and may eat the pure and the impure, as if it were gazelle or deer. But blood not eat: pour it on the earth like water. ” (Deuteronomy 12.15-16).

“As for the Gentiles who have believed, as we have sent to say that, in our determination, they should abstain from food sacrificed, blood, flesh , (Acts 21:25).

Receiving a blood transfusion is not “eat” meat, blood derivatives positions that are never used for feeding or used for that purpose. The transfusion therapy is restored: You are given one or more components of the blood is deficient in that time.

Blood is a living tissue, and continues once estándola has been infused, not used as the supply of calories, nor to provide components for protein synthesis, to form less energy reserves more here.

Remember that at the time of the biblical texts were written (about 2000-3000 years ago.), No one could imagine ever appear such medical therapies, or that exist in the blood components “major” that are banned by witnesses or components “minor”, which are well received by its members.

Otherwise, God would have had to order:

“You, however, whenever you want, kill animals and eat their albumin, immunoglobulins and their factor VIII and IX, to the extent that the LORD your God has blessed you in all your cities, and may eat the pure the unclean, like gazelle or servant. But the whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, platelets and white, do not eat: the pour it on the ground like water. “

You know that Yahweh did not mention it, for millennia of knowledge society separated Aramaic of current medical knowledge.

Author’s note:platelets, patient’s own blood stored for subsequent factor VIII and IX.
The livelihoods “Scientist”

Through research cited biased or tendentious, Witnesses seek to demonstrate that:

Blood transfusions are harmful.

Blood transfusions are unnecessary because there are other alternatives to “quality”.

To validate these hypotheses, have published  namely:

1. – The magazine “How Can Blood  the risks of transfusion and the “quality settings” and the right to choose.

2. – “The Rh Factor and You” and “At the forefront of bloodless surgery with Jehovah’s Witnesses.”

3. – “Alternative treatment to blood”, which lists various volume expanders, hemorrhagic and anti anemic.

4. – “Strategies to prevent and control bleeding and anemia without blood

5. – Compilations made by the same witnesses on some biomedical hemoglobin of 1.4 g / dl. (Brimacombe J et al. Anesthesia and Intensive Care. Vol. 19, No. 4, 1991) “.

6. – “Balance legal ethics of the doctor-patient”

7. – A video “transfusion alternatives”.

This is stunning, but reads more contrast and explain what these manuscripts and video. For example, the British Medical Journal articulates not say anywhere that can or should be without these blood products is more, the author considers its use mandatory when there is moderate or severe bleeding. Why then cited this article? Perhaps because they hoped that nobody read the study in full, keeping the “positive impression” originated in a prestigious journal is to “favor” of their cause.

Mark Warner and Ronald J, in his article “Hazards of Transfusion (Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, Vol 8, No. 03, September. 1990) report that” There are few alternatives to blood transfusion in clinical practice. The autologous transfusion is available and its popularity is increasing, mainly due to the fear of contracting  is to be amended inappropriate transfusion practices, and nothing Suggest that they be deleted.

One of the fundamental rights of the human person in the State Constitution, health is a basic right, therefore, the responsibility falls to him to protect and promote. However, health has two dimensions, is a public good and as such constitutes the foundation of sustainable development and is an individual good, since its absence makes it impossible for a person to assume obligations and commitments, social work or study, and that while deprived human life and a fundamental component of human possibilities that we have reason to value.

Addressing the issue of health in Peru, it is such a complex task, as it is the national reality, mosaic of cultures and worldviews, of hopes and dreams as diverse as national geography itself. The inequitable distribution of economic resources, human and material, make big differences between population groups not only in regard to the diseases that affect them and how they do it, but about their living conditions and quality of life.

Moreover, it is clear that our current health care system is ineffective to address the health of the entire population, so it is essential to introduce changes that respond to the demands of the population.

A revolution of Mental Health was what was experienced when, in Alma Ata launched the proposal of “Health for All”, which became one of the biggest challenges for the twenty-first century in the social field. And though few countries currently can boast of having achieved this goal, the ideal that girls and boys, women and men, young people, adults and the elderly not only have full access to health services, but beyond this welfare concept that has prevailed in the health sector for years, should provide the community of knowledge and tools sufficient to promote the full exercise of the right to health, likewise comprising its responsibility for the care of the health.
Basic framework of health policies in Peru

The rules of the law of the Ministry of Health established the mission of protecting the dignity of the human person by promoting health, preventing disease and ensuring comprehensive care for all inhabitants of the country, promoting and conducting health policy guidelines in consultation with All public and private sectors as well as social actors and non-state.

POLICY

Politics is the force that moves nations and all circumstances or important decisions go through a political move, and that is that every democratic government depends on the policy and exercise authority to make decisions, they rely on a group of people ready to achieve certain objectives in favor of the people of a country.

HEALTH POLICY

Health policy refers to the set of rules regulations and guidelines that exist to operate, finance and delivery of health care in a real way. Health policy covers a range of interrelated issues, including the financing of health care, public health, preventive health, chronic illness, disability, long term care and mental health.

HEALTH POLICY

Definition:

Health policies are the framework in which they operate from one country individuals through their organizations, businesses, and communities can exercise their activities.

The Ministry of Health with the entities and public and private policy establishes guidelines for achieving health for short-medium and long term, and to meet the social demands that are based on the unmet needs of the population.

These health policies exist at different levels, from which is produced at the legislative level (macro) and the decisions taken at the (micro) in institutions, health centers etc. Health policies when we decided to do some things and not others, when conducted in a way and not another.

Purpose:

Community empowerment new lifestyle and behavioral changes in the context of respect for their culture and identity.

Improve access and quality of care articulating the three levels of government, strengthening its human resources, in number, competence and attitude.

Objectives:

Reducing preventable and avoidable health problems

Improve public access to quality comprehensive care with enfesis in the most vulnerable population.

Extending health protection, financing of health services

Achieve universal assurance

Design, conduct, monitoring and regulating NHS.

National Health Strategies (ESN)

The ESN by definition is a set of actions limited in time, and the reality of peoples.

The objective of the strategy is embodied in concrete purposes, each of which is reflected in turn in outcomes and tasks.

INGREDIENTS:

1. Immunizations

2. Prevention and control of sexually

3. Preventing tuberculosis control

4. Prevention and control of tropical diseases such and OTVS (other vector-borne)

5. SRH

6. Prevention and control of noncommunicable damage

7. Traffic Accidents

8. Health of indigenous peoples

9. Healthy Food and Nutrition

10. Family Doctor

1. National Immunization Strategy:

Immunization is a public health activity that has proven to be the most cost effective and cost-effectiveness in the last two centuries. While acknowledging that vaccines are not completely effective, interventions are safer health.

Therefore health and therefore disease prevention through vaccination are crucial in the development of poor nations, conditioning turn:

An increase in production.

Better education.

Improved public investment and

A positive impact on demographics.

2. National Health Strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-AIDS:

Mission

The transmission of STIs and HIV / AIDS and reduce its impact on the individual, society and the economy.

Target Population

People living with HIV / AIDS

Groups with high prevalence and high risk of acquiring and transmitting STIs and HIV and / or sexual contact.

Newborns of mothers with STIs / HIV

General Population.

Our lines of action

A. – Prevention and Promotion

Interventions in Vulnerable Populations: Sex Workers (SW) and Men

who have sex with men (MSM) and Detainees (PPL).

Intervention Counselors Peer Educators PLWHA (People Living with HIV).

Strengthening of the Ministry in STI and HIV / AIDS.

General Population Interventions.

It addresses the epidemiological-clinical-genetic colon cancer patients and families affected during the period January to December 2011, in Banes. The universe included people living in the area affected. The data were obtained by direct interview and making genetic histories, processed by the statistical method of absolute and relative values. Highlights ages 60 and over with higher incidence in males. The age of onset of symptoms and diagnosis equaled or exceeded 35. Metastases were rare. The degree of kinship and showed a high heritability. Smoking was the predominant risk factor.

Abstrac

It Approaches the epidemic-clinical behavior – genetic cancer of the colon in patient and Families Affected During the period January – December 2011, in Banes. The universe embraced people Affected residents in the area. The data Were Obtained by direct interview and making of genetic histories, being processed by the statistical method of absolute and relative values. They highlight the ages of 60 and more years with More Incidence in the masculine sex. The age of beginning of the symptoms to the diagnosis and it equaled or it overcame the 35 years. The methastasis was not very frequent. The relationship degree and heritage presented a high degree. The habit of smoking was the risk factor of preponderant. Key words: Cancer, relationship, heritage, factor of risk.
Introduction

Cancer is a disordered cell proliferation due to loss of normal controls, leading to disorderly growth, lack of differentiation, local tissue invasion and often metastasize. It can appear in any tissue or organ, at any age. (1, 2, 3)

Countless are the theories put forward to explain the emergence and development of cancer as a biological entity, and range from genetics, environment, Immunology and combination of them all. (4, 5). Cancers are caused by the variable combination of two determining factors: genetic and environmental, http://nopaleahealingjuice.com/ each constituted by numerous other factors.

Colorectal tumors are the second leading cause of cancer death in the Western world and the third leading cause in Cuba, 5-10% of them are family and this fact served as a starting point to identify genes whose alterations are directly responsible for the more common sporadic cancers. Two ways known predisposing hereditary colorectal tumors: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary colon cancer nonpolyposis (HNPCC). (6, 7, 8)

Colon cancer Hereditary polypoid (HNPCC) is an inheritance model “apparently dominant” and is not accompanied by intestinal polyposis. Within this group there are families with a sole colon carcinoma tumor (Lynch syndrome type I), while in other families can also be found endometrial carcinoma, stomach, hepatobiliary and urinary tract (Lynch syndrome type II). The main genes responsible for these tumors are the hMSH2 gene (2p22) and the hMLH1 gene (3p21). Both encode proteins involved in DNA repair and alteration causes an accumulation of genetic damage in the cell, which favors malignant transformation. Mutations in these genes are present in over 70%.

In Banes during 2003-2010, died from colon cancer 52 people, including 21 males and 31 females, and right now until November 17, 2011 reported a mortality of 12 cases by same condition, 7 males and 5 females, the disease is affecting 42 cases with 17 males and 15 females.

That is why we encourage you to do research on people and families affected by colon cancer to understand the behavior of the epidemiological, clinical and genetic disease.
Method

We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective in order to describe the epidemiological, clinical and genetic colon cancer. The universe was made up of individuals and / or families affected by colon cancer during the period January to December 2011, in Banes. To form the sample was taken into account be living in the residence, direct interview for making genetic history, and informed consent of the participants. The sample was composed of 21 families with a total of 322 members.

Variables were analyzed: sex, age, clinical features, risk factors, and the tree was made to determine the heritability and relationship. The data obtained were poured into a model of collection and analyzed with descriptive statistics techniques for absolute and relative values. The results are presented in statistical tables.
Results

Presents to the age group of 60-64 years were the most affected in both sexes, which generally accounts for 42.85% of individuals with a history of developing colon cancer, showing no significant differences for other ages . So all males are more affected than females, constituting 57.14% of the people who formed the study sample.

It shows that colon cancer appeared in all surveyed after 35 years of age. There were no patients under 35 years of age, it is believed that the lifestyle mainly has great influence on the disease does not appear until later ages in which the individual acquires a passive lifestyle and associated also certain common diseases that affect the incidence of this cancer. Most cases (61.90%) had no metastasis, a lower percentage being affected to another level. There is evidence that colon cancer appears in most cases as a subsequent primary cancer if not treated early metastasize to other levels. The main treatments applied to 100% of the patients were surgery and chemotherapy, and 85% of them also required radiation. (Table II)

Introduction

In this project we will discuss the causes and consequences containing snuff and teach them a little experiment of snuff causes damage to the lungs and teeth, using egg into a jar filled with water and small pieces of snuff containing the cigar. Also expect by using this project that smoking damages your body and your life.
What is snuff?

The snuff is a product of agriculture and is also native to the Americas and is processed by the leaves of various plants, can be consumed in various ways, the main producing smoke from combustion.

The snuff comes from a plant that has been used for many centuries which it’s good for health related issues.

The snuff contains over 4,000 active chemicals and at least 43 of these 4,000 are other carcinogenic and other substances are toxic, poisonous and harmful genes.
Who invented the snuff?

The snuff has no fixed inventor, snuff was grown initially between Peru and Ecuador, but quickly spread across America.

In 1492 when Columbus arrived in Cuba found the Indians smoking pipe dare natural (hollow stems of plants) dry snuff.

Cigars were created by the custom of beggars collect the remains of those smoking cigars pulling down and liaban on sheets of paper. Early cigars that were made and packed arrived in Spain in 1825, and packs in 1833.
Consequences of snuff

You can attract diseases like:

Cataracts are considered to snuff causes various eye conditions.

Wrinkle: the snuff causes premature aging of the skin all wear because the proteins that give elasticity and reduction of blood supply to the tissue suffers.

Hearing loss: in snuff plates for forming the walls of the blood vessels thereby reducing the inner ear irrigation.

Cancer: As I already wrote, more than 40 chemicals in the snuff cause cancer

Tooth decay: the snuff favors that most often form tartar, stained teeth yellow and have bad breath.

Emphysema reduces lung capacity to capture oxygen and expel carbon dioxide.

Cancer in women and abortion: it will increase the risk of cervical cancer, brings problems of infertility in women and cause complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

Sperm: the snuff can alter sperm morphology and DNA damage your
Causes of snuff

Almost all smokers start the habit for social reasons: recognition, acceptance of others, the rebellion against the bans. The snuff as a means of socialization is an idea imposed largely by the film and advertising. The great American movie stars smoking in movies and snuff consumption promoted in advertising.

But there are other reasons, such as psychological, since smoking creates a false sense of pleasure, relaxation and concentration. Until the twentieth century it was believed that snuff had therapeutic properties and, in some ways, it is, as it serves as an antidepressant and to relieve anxiety. The problem is that it creates a heavy dependence on addictive components, so currently most effective remedies used to combat health problems.

What brand of cigarettes does more damage?

Each cigar, every brand, anything containing nicotine hurts. Smoking is the worst thing any human can do because it is harming himself slowly.

What used snuff, besides smoking?

The snuff is used not only for smoking, with their leaves do notebooks, sheets, books, diaries, etc … It is similar to the role the environmental damage is less
Snuff smoke constituents

The smoke emitted from a large number of snuff chemicals apparently are negative except water vapor.

Tars

Are those substances which are responsible for the occurrence of different types of cancer that are attributed to smoking, which are classified into three different categories according to their different role in the development of these 3 types of cancers.

Initiators: are carcinogenic substances that have the ability to generate tumor cells.

Promoters: are substances that act by stimulating the action of the tumor cells.

Carcinogens: are substances which are unable by themselves to develop a carcinogenic action, but favors the development of tumor cells produced by the initiators.

Carbon monoxide (CO2)

It is a colorless, highly toxic that emerges from the combustion of snuff and cigar wrapping paper

The blood enters the CO2 from the alveoli dare and binds to hemoglobin displacing oxygen, so that the oxygenation of the tissues is very difficult.

Irritants

The main irritants are also cough also of increased mucus, watery smokers.

Nicotine

Is responsible nicotine addiction. Besides it is the principal alkaloid of snuff which is present in the leaves of the plant and also in the smoke from combustion.

Nicotine in cigarettes is in acid salt form, so it does not dissolve in saliva and not absorbed through the buccal mucosa and the smoker is forced to inhale more deeply so that it reaches the alveoli and dare from these blood wing pass.

Nicotine has a half-life of approximately two hours. After that time to measure their blood levels frequently decreases, the smoker returns to have greater desire to smoke again.

Do not consume

1 If you are under 18 years of age most affects your whole body and it is prohibited by law.

2 If you have ever suffered from pulmonary or respiratory diseases can affect you your entire respiratory system.

3 Do not use if you are pregnant.

4 If the reason for eating, it is because your friends do.

5 If you have that mentality that you can reassure smoking and / or relax.

The Papyrus of “Imhotep”

The papyrus was initially studied by Edwin Smith and donated to his death by his daughter to the historical society in New York, is now in the Academy of Medicine in the same city. His final study was completed by James H. Breasted (1865-1935). (4) is a surgical ostensibly document content and provides the most important elements of the medical practice of the ancient Egyptians, which curiously, turns away the mythical elements and attributed to magic in curing ailments, applying deduction and logical reasoning. (9) According assumes Pahl (1986) is a collection of the experience gained in thousands of years (10) in which the scientific method was applied based on the clinical observation of disease. (11)

The aforementioned papyrus is a roll about 15 feet long written on both sides consisting of 22 columns with almost 500 lines. The text contains 48 illustrative cases with various traumatic injuries and accidental head, face, neck, arms, chest, shoulder, and spine, in that order. Each case is arranged in a logical, very modern including a descriptive heading or provisional diagnosis, test results, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. (1,12,13) ​​Classify each case in relation to prognosis as favorable, uncertain or untreatable and treatment given in “medical condition that I can try,” “medical condition that I can overcome with” medical condition.

Among other interesting aspects of the papyrus, brings several trauma cases of central nervous system (CNS), (14) may be the scoop of the writing of the word “brain” and one of the earliest descriptions of meninges and cerebrospinal fluid, (15) has the scoop on the description of seizures or delirium after trauma, (12) also makes reference to the first case reported in the literature aphasia enunciating a patient after a head injury, “was frustrated” by the impossibility to speak and who developed a stiff neck that could be related to meningeal irritation, if also reported as serious, and in this condition could only be relieved or comforted, untreated. (15) Refers other injuries with skull fractures, both open with exposed meninges and brain, and closed, the base, with or without neurological deficit, with or without depression of bone fragments, fractures of the face, particularly pronounced with elements of poor prognosis when marrow depression, exposure of meninges and brain, head injuries or tetanus infested, large craniofacial trauma, stab wounds or other penetrating injuries. Although at that time the lack of CNS morphophysiology not allow a proper interpretation of the disease process, the PES provides several cases of paralysis of the limbs in traumatic injuries of the spine (16) and symptoms of neurological impairment in a crushing a vertebra of the neck (17) and paralysis of the bladder.

One of the most interesting cases of dislocation treatment as set out in the document is the reduction of the jaw, a technique that has remained unchanged since Pharaonic times to the present. (19) Another procedure set out in the document is the nasal tamponade bleeding in cases of nasal fractures. (12) There is also a description of the splinting treatment of nasal trauma. (1,21)

Acopia 3 cases of fracture of humerus and its reduction by traction and linen bandage as a recommendation (20) and other traumatic injuries among which may be mentioned various cases of thoracic trauma, with fractures or dislocations of the clavicle, ribs, sternum, penetrating wounds, etc. (12) mentions a case with other penetrating neck wound with injury to the esophagus.

Among other interesting facts, collects the first written description of suture (13) and contains what was perhaps the first review of blood flow (22) and discoloration of the skin that later became known as cyanosis. (12)

Describes ulcers or tumors of the breast that were perhaps a sequel to trauma and pus cyst treated with a “punch of Fire” is unclear although its nature could be related to the cautery. (13) paper details the treatment of infected wounds in which use is made of honey and plant healing purposes, (12) which also constitutes the start of the phytopharmacological.

This precious document, which took the title of Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, is therefore the expression of the experience accumulated by Imhotep, who in a scientific, educational and orderly changed what was known until then of ancient medicine, on multiple events that unexpectedly had a space in the time of ancient Egypt many of which persist today despite the more than 4800 years old.

Imhotep was as scribe as a doctor, although with a primitive language was a man beyond his time who lived for life. Having given a scientific character to medical expertise, as mentioned in papyrus collection, achieved glory as a few of the ancient world, their contributions to other branches of knowledge, he immortalized for humanity, so that the story requires it, which once ignored, granted the status he never lost. Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s, to Imhotep ….. If the gods of Egyptian cultures, controlled the balance Health – Disease, Imhotep also succeeded.

Given the above, we arrive at the following
Conclusions

Imhotep was the first physician known more than a scientist of his time, his contributions made him a symbol of intelligence and will to the health service and other branches of knowledge, both of which should be more widespread, its historical deification must transcend these days and not die in ancient Egypt.

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